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Country anticipates the end of hostilities for the Great War in late November 1918.

MADRAS PIONEER LOGO - The Madras Pioneer looks back through more than 100 years of newspaper archives.100 YEARS AGO

November 21, 1918

The Great War is virtually ended. At the time of this writing, hostilities had not ceased, but the plenipotentiaries of Germany had crossed the lines to a point near Guise, bearing a white flag, and were there considering the armistice terms offered them by Marshal Foch. That they would be compelled to accept these terms was considered a foregone conclusion.

Though the terms of the armistice had not been made public, those granted to Austria and Turkey proved that Germany would be forced to accept terms that meant unconditional surrender, with all that implies. The allies were in a position to refuse to listen to anything short of that.

President Wilson had notified the German high command that it would have to ask terms from Marshal Foch in the field, and in consequence, Mathias Erzberger, General Winterfeld, Count Von Oberndorff, General Von Gruenell and Naval Captain Von Salow carried the allies. Whether they were fully empowered to act for Germany was not stated, but it was supposed that if it were necessary to submit the terms to the Reichstag, such action would be in the nature of a formality.

Thus, after four years and three months of terrible conflict, the Great War, involving directly most of the nation's globe, has come to a close with the utter defeat of Germany and her allies, the complete failure of the gigantic conspiracy to force upon the world the rule of militaristic autocracy.

At the expense of millions of lives and billions of treasure, the reign of democracy has been established throughout the world. The price has not been too great, for the victorious nations, and perhaps some of the conquered, have been regenerated by the blood they have shed and the gold they have spent.

Her military front in the west collapsing, her home front breaking down, her people ready to revolt and her troops forming soviets after the fashion of the Russian bolsheviki, Germany had to give up the struggle.

Had the army commanders had their way, probably the fighting would have been continued for a short time longer, though hopelessly. But the internal changes had actually given the people a power they never before had enjoyed, and they brought it to bear in a way that compelled the militarists to make a speedy peace. The revolt of the armed forces already had begun in Hamburg and Kiel and also in Schleswig, and it was reported that the revolutionists had gained control of the entire German fleet.

75 YEARS AGO

November 18, 1943

Nighttime is the danger time for pedestrians in Oregon, Secretary of State Bob Farrell said today in disclosing that 63 percent of the pedestrian fatalities so far this year resulted from accidents which occurred after dark.

Inability of the driver to see the pedestrian in time to swerve or stop to avoid an accident is the factor leading to most of these fatalities, he said. Pedestrians dressed in dark clothing reflect little light at night. In many cities, street intersections were darkened due to dim-out conditions and in addition, pedestrians often cross streets between intersections.

These factors lead to the highest incidence of death to pedestrians after dark. Farrell pointed out that tests had shown that pedestrians dressed in dark clothing reflect only about 5 percent, thus, the lights of a vehicle are only about 5 percent efficient in illuminating pedestrians for the driver, especially at distances of more than 100 feet.

In order to avoid these accidents, Farrell offered the following suggestions:

1. Pedestrians should cross streets only at intersections where there may be no light and where drivers will be expecting them.

2. At night, when crossing the streets, pedestrians should display a lighted flashlight, so motorists can see them far enough in advance to avoid an accident.

3. Pedestrians should realize that drivers may not see them on dark nights and take the responsibility of keeping out of the car's path.

4. Drivers should be alert at intersections and in areas where many pedestrians may be expected, such as in the vicinity of industrial plants, churches, theaters, stores, etc.

50 YEARS AGO

November 21, 1968

Seven million years ago a giant, 6-foot salmon lazily fed in a swift flowing stream 10 miles north of Madras. Through its mouth passed near microscopic particles of life — algae, plankton, and other small units of living matter the fish carefully filtered out for food.

The ancient stream no longer flows, its rapids forever stilled as the irresistible forces of volcanism, ice, and ceaseless erosion cut and shaped the land. Some areas escaped however, the full brunt of nature's power to change.

In such an area, as in the Gateway pit locale north of Madras, in the layers of gravel and silt deposited millions of years ago by tumbling prehistoric waters, a Madras woman, Mrs. James W. (Bunny) Quinn — housewife, mother, and amateur paleontologist — last fall discovered definitive remains of a giant-size salmon, an important discovery which confirmed positively the nature of the fishes' feeding system and enlarged significantly the story of this ancient Central Oregon creature.

25 YEARS AGO

November 18, 1993

Actor River Phoenix, who died suddenly Oct. 32, at age 23 outside a West Hollywood nightclub, was born in Metolius, not Madras, and it wasn't in a log cabin.

According to his parent's former landlord Roy Nance of Metolius, Phoenix was born to "hippie" parents in the Nance family homestead, just west of the railroad tracks on Dover Lane in Metolius, a place now rented by Chuck and Carol Harden.

"I was probably the first one in the county that hired hippies," Nance said, noting he put them to work changing sprinklers and hoeing mint.

Back then in the 1970s, Nance said, the group of counterculture people had met on the road and were traveling together. When he hired them, they all moved into the two-story house on Dover Lane which he provided for his help. "They lived all stacked up like firewood in this house," Nance said.

Nance never made the connection to the baby born in his house and River Phoenix until a few years ago, because his parents' name was different.

"Their name was Bottom. I made the checks out to John Bottom. The parents were just kids, 18 or 19 years old I'd guess, and I was only 28. They were here working the whole summer," he related.

Nance definitely remembers River's birth because he was concerned that the baby wasn't being born in a hospital.

"She (Arlynn Bottom) was pregnant and wanted the whole community in on helping with the birth. They kind of looked up to me and she wanted me over there, but I didn't want anything to do with it," Nance recalled, noting men from his generation weren't into watching women birthing babies.

"They didn't want a doctor, even when I said I'd pay for it. Finally, I talked them into having the county health nurse, Doris Suratt, come over and check on them," Nance said.

Still wanting to include Nance in the occasion, about an hour after the baby was born, his proud mother walked across the field to Nance's house so he could see her baby.

"I held him when he was one hour old and they named him little River Bottom," Nance said.

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